This is the Genus of one of the sturgeon species. eg Acipenser baerii or Acipenser gueldenstaedtii. There are two other sturgeon genus- Huso and Scaphirhynchus.

Name for the largest of the Sturgeon fishes. Latin name Huso huso. Native of the Caspian and Black Sea water sheds, it is also still native to the Adriatic, but very rare. Beluga caviar has the largest egg size of any caviar, one of the reasons for its top prize. It also has a unique colour grading system- 000 guarantees a light grey colour, which is the most expensive. 00 - codes for "medium grey".

American Caviar
This is term full of potential to confuse. It can mean any of the native American sturgeon species, such as the transmontanus species now being farmed in California. Other caviar retailers use the term when they mean the caviar of the non-sturgeon paddlefish, spoonbill or bowfin which produce similarly large and grey or dark brown eggs. Alternative caviars such as Whitefish or Trout from the US great lakes can be sold as American caviar. It is therefore more a geographic tag than reference to any species in particular.

This is the species name for the Siberian Sturgeon which is native to places such as Russia's Lake Baikal. It is a relatively small and fast maturing sturgeon which is part of the reason that it has become a popular choice for farming. Some of the new French, Italian and Uruguayan aqua farms are producing Baerii caviar.

This is the name given to the hybrid sturgeon created by crossing the large beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) with the small sweet fleshed Sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). This has produced a fish with admirable qualities, but could cause a problem if released into the wild.

Chinese Caviar
See Kaluga.

Color Codes
There is a continuing tradition, to visually separate the three main type of sturgeon caviar by packing them in different colored containers. Beluga tends to be packaged in blue, sevruga in red leaving the osetra packaged in yellow. Although this is not kept to by all caviar manufacturers and distributors, most tins and jar tops sold today still adhere to this color separation and so called "sandard".

This is one of the sturgeon genus (Beluga family). eg Huso dauricus. There are two other sturgeon genus - Acipenser (Osetra family)and Scaphirhynchus.

The name of the large sturgeon found in the Amur river, shared between China and Russia. It grows very large and produces caviar very similar to the other large sturgeon specie - the Beluga and that's why called River Beluga. Its Latin name is Huso dauricus.

Widely used Russian term meaning lightly salted. It is sometimes seen written as Malo sol. In practice this means salt content of 3% to 5% salt. It is a term that is not indicative of quality, merely describing the process. If the salt content exceeds 5%, it should then be termed salted caviar. The low salt level means that even if the caviar is kept appropriately cool it has a restricted shelf life of only 2-3 months.

See Osetra.

This is a term that is more a description of a type of caviar rather than being limited to the caviar of one single species. Although more often than not it tends to mean the caviar of the Russian Sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), several other sturgeon produce similar small grained nutty flavored eggs which are also categorized and sold as osetra caviar. This is the reason why osetra caviar has a reputation for being somewhat variable in color, flavor and size. There is a range of alternative spellings still in use such as ossetra, oscietre or osscietre.

See Osetra.

Pressed caviar
This is an ancient traditional technique for preserving fish eggs. The famous bottarga fish roes of the Mediterranean region being the best known. This caviar tends to be made from the roes which have been damaged during the extraction process. Due to the difficult task of separating the individual eggs from their egg sac and other tissues, this is normal practice. Unlike the mullet roe of the bottarga, sturgeon roe is extracted from the egg sac membrane, it is therefore put in a man-made muslin sac before pressed under weight. This process produces a very rich concentrated flavor as there tends to be 3-4 times more eggs per ounce in pressed caviar. It used to be dried and pressed more in the past leading to a consistency which could be sliced and spread like butter. Nowadays the custom appears to be a softer consistency, more resembling that of jam, which can be spread. The Russian term for pressed caviar is Payusnaya or Paiusnaya.

The process in which the caviar is heat treated by steeping tins or jars of caviar in water of 60-70 degrees Centigrade. This process while lengthening shelf life to a year or more, does affect the quality and flavor of the caviar.

Salted caviar
This is caviar that has more than 5% and therefore outside the limits of the Malossol method. This higher ratio of salt preservation is often found in caviars sold in the US. Seldom does it exceed 10%. The trade off for the increased shelf life is to somewhat alter the flavor of the caviar.

One of the sturgeon genus, it has just one endangered species the Shovelnose Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), which is native to the waters of the Mississippi River system. This particular sturgeon produces the caviar often sold under the name Hackleback. The other two sturgeon genus are Acipenser and Huso.

This is the name reserved for the caviar produced by the sturgeon species, Acipenser stellatus. The English name for this species is the Starry Sturgeon. It is native to the river networks leading into the Caspian and Black Seas.

The species name for the Sevruga or Starry Sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus).

This is the species name for the American White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) which is native to the West coast of the US from California, north as far as Alaska. The river most famous for this fish, and where it is still caught, is the Columbia River. The huge Bonnerville Dam has constrained the migration of these huge fish, but luckily there are some natural breeding habitats just below the dam. This species is being farmed in its native states such as California, and also in European countries such as Italy.

White Sturgeon
See Transmontanus.

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